The benefits of vitamin E: Real or potential?
04 March 2015
Vitamin E is a collective term that refers to a group of fat‐soluble vitamin compounds. Discovered in 1922 by Evans and Bishop, these compounds are not synthesized in the human body and must be obtained in dietary form. They occur naturally in many fat‐containing foods. Vitamin E is a major antioxidant and plays a role in protecting polyunsaturated fatty acid chains from peroxidation, a chemical reaction initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leading to the production of highly toxic derivatives. Vitamin E captures and neutralizes ROS and free radicals before cell structures are damaged. Oxidative phenomena are involved in numerous degenerative processes, in particular aging, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In addition to its antioxidant activity, vitamin E is involved in immune function, modulating inflammatory processes (through its action on prostaglandins) and platelet aggregation. The purpose of this document is to characterize current knowledge among French adults and children with regard to vitamin E and to provide an overview of what is known about the health effects or benefits of maintaining the recommended levels of vitamin E in the diet.
Food Wastage: Overview and Prospects
08 September 2014
Food wastage is a complex process that occurs throughout the food supply chain. In developing countries, more than half of food losses and waste occur at the beginning of the chain during production—because of unsuitable agricultural practices and post-harvest operations—or during storage and transportation. In developed countries, food is wasted at the end of the chain primarily by consumers who do so without even being aware of it. The reasons for their waste are mainly behavioural: inadequate grocery planning, strict adherence to expiry dates, and a lack of knowledge about how to cook with leftovers.
Teenagers and dietary emancipation - Abstract
21 July 2014
Not yet adults but no longer children, adolescents make up a very distinctive population distinguished by a desire to assert themselves by making choices independently of parental influence and norms dictated to them. Diet does not escape from their questioning of proposed models, whether these emanate from the family sphere, school, public authorities, or even their own peer groups. Although there is indeed an adolescent culture associated with the disruptive change towards a diet made up largely of French fries, pizza, sodas and fast foods (heightening the risk of obesity and diabetes), the dietary behaviour of adolescents should not be reduced to this caricature. At any age, numerous factors influence dietary choices, and adolescence is no exception to this rule.
Eating and aging - Abstract
03 February 2014
Eating constitutes the first pleasure of the newborn. This act can remain a pleasure until the end of life provided that particular attention is paid to the quality of the meal and the environment in which it is eaten.
Dietary magnesium in Plants - Case study
22 March 2013
Magnesium is the most abundant mineral in the body after calcium, phosphorus and potassium. It is a vital element, since along with calcium it ensures neuronal function, in addition to numerous physiological functions. All cells in the human body require magnesium.
Grains are the principal source of dietary magnesium. Foods made from whole grains provide on average 100–150 mg of magnesium per 100 g of product, which is three to five times more than the amounts provided by refined grain products such as white rice, bread or pasta.
A vegetarian or vegetalian diet is at little risk of causing a magnesium deficiency, since magnesium is found at least in small quantities in practically all plants. However, there is no single food that can meet the recommended intake for magnesium. Magnesium is therefore one of the reasons why it is recommended to maintain a diet that includes a wide variety of foods.
Dietary behaviour of 11 to 15-year-olds in Europe - Case study
06 March 2013
In a study involving 40 countries, the European regional bureau of the World Health Organization (WHO) has taken a snapshot of the so-called “digital native” generation. Hooked on screens, lacking sleep and yet healthy, not over-stressed with school but preoccupied with their weight, the generation now aged 11 to 15 has a very distinctive set of lifestyle habits. A third of these young people are on a diet or wish to lose weight (especially girls), and many of them have experience with alcoholic intoxication and illicit drugs… Whether we look at dietary habits or modern lifestyles, this generation has been innovative and warrants closer examination, which is the goal of this monograph.
Understanding the evolution of our dietary behaviour to improve that of the future - Abstract
behaviour, consumption, environment
03 February 2013
Within the space of just two generations, society has swept away thousands of years' worth of cultural evolution regarding the understanding of vegetable and animal food resources.
The nutritional challenges for an ageing population - Case study
11 May 2012
Who are today’s seniors? What influence does the environment and age have on their health? What are the major obstacles to a balanced diet in our latter years? How widespread is undernutrition and how can it be stopped? What role do vegetables play in the diets of seniors? In this document, we will analyse and attempt to answer these questions.
How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ? - Abstract
03 February 2012
Everyone is aware nowadays that it is advisable to consume 'at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day'. Consumer information is not the issue: it is necessary to ask oneself what other factors are limiting consumption.
Plant biology, breeding and genetic engineering - Case study
25 January 2012
As living multi-cellular organisms, humans and vascular plants share numerous characteristics. Both are made up of cells, tissues and organs, and these cells contain DNA organized in a nucleus and carry out metabolic processes such as respiration and growth. The major differences are the energy source (fixed carbon versus photons) and certain aspects of the mode of reproduction. The following review of first-year university plant biology will prepare us to evaluate the state of the art in the practice of plant variety improvement and the creation of new organisms based on direct modification of DNA.